In Bulk Ore Sorting, the IMA BOSS removes waste rock from mineral concentrator feed material and replaces it with ore for higher-quality mill feed. This happens before the material enters the energy-intensive grinding process. The grinding process consumes up to 50% of the energy used in mining. The sorting system reduces energy consumption and related CO2 emissions per ton of metal produced as the concentrate. Moreover, the recovery of ore from waste rock by sorting does not involve increasing mining tonnage and related energy consumption. This means more metal per ton in mining, and up to 20% less energy consumption. Also, it results in less related CO2 emissions in mining and processing. At the same time, the BOSS reduces the amount of mine tailings due to processing less waste rock.